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Characteristics Accuracy

The AK-47's accuracy has always been considered to be "good enough" to hit an adult male torso out to about 300 m (328 yd), [66] [67] though even experts firing from prone or bench rest positions at this range were observed to have difficulty placing ten consecutive rounds on target. [68] Later designs did not significantly improve its accuracy. [68] An AK can fire a 10-shot group of 5.9 in (15 cm) at 100 m (109 yd), [69] and 17.5 in (44 cm) at 300 m (328 yd) [68] The newer stamped-steel receiver AKM models, while more rugged and less prone to metal fatigue, are actually less accurate than the forged/milled receivers of their predecessors: the milled AK-47s are capable of shooting 3 to 5 in (8 to 13 cm) groups at 100 yd (91 m), whereas the stamped AKMs are capable of shooting 4 to 6 in (10 to 15 cm) groups at 100 yd (91 m). [67]

The best shooters are able to hit a man-sized target at 800 m (875 yd) within five shots (firing from prone or bench rest position) or ten shots (standing). [70]

The single-shot hit-probability on the NATO E-type Silhouette Target (a human upper body half and head silhouette) of the AK-47 and the later developed AK-74, M16A1 and M16A2 assault rifles were measured by the US military under ideal proving ground conditions in the 1980s as follows:

NATO E-type Silhouette Target Single-shot hit-probability on Crouching Man (NATO E-type Silhouette) Target [71] Rifle Chambering Hit-probability (With no range estimation or aiming errors) 50 meters 100 meters 200 meters 300 meters 400 meters 500 meters 600 meters 700 meters 800 meters AK-47 (1949) 7.62×39mm 100% 100% 99% 94% 82% 67% 54% 42% 31% AK-74 (1974) 5.45×39mm 100% 100% 100% 99% 93% 81% 66% 51% 34% M16A1 (1967) 5.56×45mm NATO M193 100% 100% 100% 100% 96% 87% 73% 56% 39% M16A2 (1982) 5.56×45mm NATO SS109/M855 100% 100% 100% 100% 98% 90% 79% 63% 43%

Under worst field exercise circumstances, due to range estimation and aiming errors, the hit probabilities for the tested assault rifles were drastically reduced with differences without operational significance.

Service life

The AK-47 and its variants are made in dozens of countries, with "quality ranging from finely engineered weapons to pieces of questionable workmanship." [72] As a result, the AK-47 has a service/system life of approximately 6,000, [73] to 10,000, [74] to 15,000 [75] rounds. The AK-47 was designed to be a cheap, simple, easy to manufacture assault rifle, [76] perfectly matching Soviet military doctrine that treats equipment and weapons as disposable items. [77] As units are often deployed without adequate logistical support and dependent on "battlefield cannibalization" for resupply, it is actually more cost-effective to replace rather than repair weapons. [77]

The AK-47 has small parts and springs that need to be replaced every few thousand rounds. However, "Every time it is disassembled beyond the field stripping stage, it will take some time for some parts to regain their fit, some parts may tend to shake loose and fall out when firing the weapon. Some parts of the AK-47 line are riveted together. Repairing these can be quite a hassle, since the end of the rivet has to be ground off and a new one set after the part is replaced." [51]

Variants 7.62×39mm cartridges from Russia, China and Pakistan Early variants (7.62×39mm) Issue of 1948/49: Type 1: The very earliest models, stamped sheet metal receiver, are now very rare. Issue of 1951: Type 2: Has a milled receiver. Barrel and chamber are chrome plated to resist corrosion. Issue of 1954/55: Type 3: Lightened, milled receiver variant. Rifle weight is 3.47 kg (7.7 lb). [5] AKS (AKS-47): Type 1, 2, or 3 receiver: Featured a downward-folding metal stock similar to that of the German MP40 , for use in the restricted space in the BMP infantry combat vehicle, as well as by paratroops. AKN (AKSN): Night scope rail. [78] Modernized (7.62×39mm) AKM : A simplified, lighter version of the AK-47; Type 4 receiver is made from stamped and riveted sheet metal. A slanted muzzle device was added to counter climb in automatic fire. Rifle weight is 3.1 kg (6.8 lb) [7] due to the lighter receiver. This is the most ubiquitous variant of the AK-47. AKMS: Under-folding stock version of the AKM intended for airborne troops. AKMN (AKMSN): Night scope rail. AKML (AKMSL): Slotted flash suppressor and night scope rail. [79] RPK : Hand-held machine gun version with longer barrel and bipod . The variants—RPKS, RPKN (RPKSN), RPKL (RPKSL)—mirror AKM variants. The "S" variants have a side-folding wooden stock.

For the further developed AK models, see Kalashnikov rifle s.

Production Outside of the Soviet Union/Russia

Kalashnikov Concern (formerly Izhmash) has repeatedly claimed that the majority of foreign manufacturers are producing AK type rifles without proper licensing . [80] [81]

This section needs additional citations for verification . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2013) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Country Military variant(s) Albania Automatiku Shqiptar model 56 (ASH-78 Tip-1) Albanian Automatic Assault Rifle Model 56 Type-1 [Made in Poliçan Arsenal] (Straight forward copy of Type 56 , which in turn is a clone of the Soviet AKM rifle)

Automatiku Shqiptar Tipi 1982 (ASH-82) Albanian Automatic Assault Rifle Type 1982 [Made in Poliçan Arsenal] (Straight forward copy of AKMS )

Automatiku Shqiptar model 56 (ASH-78 Tip-2) Albanian Light Machine Gun [Made in Poliçan Arsenal] (Straight forward copy of RPK )

Automatiku Shqiptar model 56 (ASH-78 Tip-3) Albanian Automatic Hybrid Rifle Model 56 Type-3 [Made in Poliçan Arsenal] (Hybrid rifle for multi-purpose roles mainly Marksman rifle with secondary assault rifle and grenade launcher capability)

Several other unnamed & unidentified versions of the AKMS have been produced mainly with short barrels similar to the Soviet AKS-74U mainly for special forces, Tank & Armoured crew also for Helicopter pilots and police. There have also been modifications and fresh production of heavily modified ASh-82 ( AKMS ) with SOPMOD accessories, mainly for Albania's special forces RENEA & exports. [ original research? ]

Armenia K-3 (bullpup, 5.45×39mm ) Azerbaijan Khazri (AK-74M) [82] Bangladesh Chinese Type 56 Bulgaria AKK/AKKS (Type 3 AK-47/w. side-folding buttstock)

AKKMS (AKMS), AKKN-47 (fittings for NPSU night sights)

AK-47M1 (Type 3 with black polymer furniture)

AK-47MA1/AR-M1 (same as -M1, but in 5.56mm NATO)

AKS-47M1 (AKMS in 5.56×45mm NATO )

AKS-47S (AK-47M1, short version, with East German folding stock, laser aiming device)

AKS-47UF (short version of -M1, Russian folding stock), AR-SF (same as −47UF, but 5.56mm NATO)

AKS-93SM6 (similar to −47M1, cannot use grenade launcher)

RKKS (RPK), AKT-47 (.22 rimfire training rifle)

Cambodia Chinese Type 56 , Soviet AK-47, and AKM People's Republic of China Type 56 Colombia Galil ACE Croatia APS-95 Cuba AKM [83] East Germany [84] MPi-K/MPi-KS (AK-47/AKS)

MPi-KM (AKM; wooden and plastic stock), MPi-KMS-72 (side-folding stock), MPi-KMS-K (carbine)

MPi-AK-74N (AK-74), MPi-AKS-74N (side-folding stock), MPi-AKS-74NK (carbine)

KK-MPi Mod.69 ( .22 LR select-fire trainer)

Egypt AK-47, Misr assault rifle (AKMS), Maadi ARM (AKM) Ethiopia AK-47, AK-103 (manufactured locally at the State-run Gafat Armament Engineering Complex as the Et-97/1) [85] Finland Rk 62 , Valmet M76 (other names Rk 62 76, M62/76), Valmet M78 (light machine gun), Rk 95 Tp Hungary [86] AK-55 (domestic manufacture of the 2nd Model AK-47)

AKM-63 (also known as AMD-63 in the US; modernized AK-55), AMD-65 M (modernized AKM-63, shorter barrel and side-folding stock), AMP-69 (rifle grenade launcher)

AK-63 F/D (other name AMM/AMMSz), AK-63MF (modernized)

NGM-81 ( 5.56×45mm NATO ; fixed and under-folding stock)

India INSAS (fixed and side-folding stock), KALANTAK (carbine), INSAS light machine gun (fixed and side-folding stock), a local unlicensed version with carbon fibre furniture designated as AK-7 [87]

Trichy Assault Rifle 7.62 mm, manufactured by Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli of Ordnance Factories Board [88]

Iran KLS/KLF (AK-47/AKS), KLT (AKMS) Iraq Tabuk Sniper Rifle , Tabuk Assault Rifle (with fixed or underfolding stock, outright clones of Yugoslavian M70 rifles series), Tabuk Short Assault Rifle (carbine) Israel IMI Galil : AR (assault/battle rifle), ARM (assault rifle/light machine gun), SAR (carbine), MAR (compact carbine), Sniper (sniper rifle), SR-99 (sniper rifle)

Galil ACE

Italy Bernardelli VB-STD/VB-SR (Galil AR/SAR) [89] Nigeria Produced by the Defence Industries Corporation of Nigeria as OBJ-006 [90] [91] North Korea Type 58 A/B (Type 3 AK-47/w. stamped steel folding stock), Type 68A/B (AKM/AKMS), Type 88A/B-2 (AK-74/AKS-74/w. top folding stock) [92] [93] Pakistan Reverse engineered by hand and machine in Pakistan's highland areas (see Khyber Pass Copy ) near the border of Afghanistan; more recently the Pakistan Ordnance Factories started the manufacture of an AK-47/AKM clone called PK-10 [94] Poland [95] pmK (kbk AK) / pmKS (kbk AKS) (name has changed from pmK – "pistolet maszynowy Kałasznikowa", Kalashnikov SMG to the kbk AK – "karabinek AK", Kalashnikov Carbine in the mid-1960s) (AK-47/AKS)

kbkg wz. 1960 (rifle grenade launcher), kbkg wz. 1960/72 (modernized)

kbk AKM / kbk AKMS (AKM/AKMS)

kbk wz. 1988 Tantal ( 5.45×39mm ), skbk wz. 1989 Onyks (compact carbine)

kbs wz. 1996 Beryl ( 5.56×45mm ), kbk wz. 1996 Mini-Beryl (compact carbine)

Romania PM md. 63/65 (AKM/AKMS), PM md. 80 , PM md. 90 , collectively exported under the umbrella name AIM or AIMS

PA md. 86 (AK-74), exported as the AIMS-74

PM md. 90 short barrel, PA md. 86 short barrel, exported as the AIMR

PSL (designated marksman rifle; other names PSL-54C, Romak III, FPK and SSG-97)

South Africa R4 assault rifle , Truvelo Raptor , Vektor CR-21 (bullpup) Sudan MAZ [96] (based on the Type 56 ) Ukraine Vepr (bullpup, 5.45×39mm ), Malyuk (bullpup) [97] United States Century Arms: C39 (AK47 var.), RAS47 (AKM var.), and C39v2 (AK47 var.)), InterOrdnance: AKM247 (AKM var.) M214 (pistol), Palmetto State Armory: PSAK-47 (AKM var.), Arsenal Inc: SA M-7 (AK47 var.), Destructive Devices Industries: DDI 47S (AKM var.) DDI 47M (AK47 var), Rifle Dynamics: RD700 and other custom build AK / AKM guns Vietnam AKM-1 (AKM), TUL-1 (RPK), Galil Ace 31/32 Venezuela License granted, factory under construction [98] Yugoslavia / Serbia M64, M70 , M72 , M76 , M77 , M80 , M82 , M85 , M90 , M91 , M92 , M99 , M21 Users It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article. ( Discuss ) (January 2015) A map of current and former AK users A U.S. Army M.P inspects a Chinese AK-47 recovered in Vietnam, 1968 AK-47's of the PAIGC -liberation movement, ready to be transported from Senegal to Guinea-Bissau, 1973 A Soviet Spetsnaz (special operations) group prepares for a mission in Afghanistan, 1988 During the Soviet war in Afghanistan in the 1980s, several sources simultaneously armed both sides of the Afghan conflict, filling the country with AK-47s and their derivatives. [99]   Afghanistan [100]   Albania [101]   Algeria [101]   Angola [101]   Armenia [101]   Azerbaijan [101] [102]   Bangladesh [101]   Belarus [101]   Benin [101]   Bosnia and Herzegovina [101]   Botswana [101]   Bulgaria [101]   Burkina Faso [103] [104] [105]   Burundi [106] [107]   Cambodia [101]   Cameroon [108] [109]   Cape Verde [101]   Central African Republic [101]   Chad [101]   Chile [110]   People's Republic of China: Type 56 variant was used. [111]   Comoros [101]   Republic of the Congo [101]   Democratic Republic of the Congo [101]   Cuba [101]   Djibouti [112] [113]   East Germany [114]   Egypt [101]   Eritrea [101]   Ethiopia [101]   El Salvador [115]   Fiji [116]   Finland: Rk 62 , Rk 95 Tp .   Gabon [101]   Gambia [117] [118] [119] [120]   Ghana [121] [122]   Greece: EKAM counter-terrorist unit of the Hellenic Police . [123] [124]   Georgia [101]   Guatemala [125]   Guinea [101]   Equatorial Guinea [101]   Guinea-Bissau [101]   Guyana [101]   Hungary [101]   India: [101] Used by Force One . [126]   Indonesia: Still used by TNI-AD, TNI-AL, TNI-AU, and Police [ citation needed ]   Iran [101]   Iraq [100] [101]   Israel: Widely used by Israeli Special Forces Units from the 1960 - 1980s. [127]   Ivory Coast [128] [129] [130]   Kazakhstan [101]   Kenya [131]   North Korea: Type 58 variants were used. [101]   Kurdistan – Peshmerga   Laos [101]   Kuwait [132]   Lebanon [101]   Liberia [101]   Libya [101]   Macedonia [101] [133]   Madagascar [101]   Mali [101]   Malta: Type 56 variant. [101]   Mauritania [134] [135] [136]   Moldova [101]   Mongolia [101]   Morocco [101]   Mozambique [101]   Myanmar: Used by the Myanmar Police Force (include the Chinese Type 56 ). [ citation needed ]   Namibia [101]   Niger [137] [138] [139]   Nigeria [90] [91]   Oman [101]   Pakistan: Type 56 [140] and AK-103 [141] used.   Palestinian Authority [142]   Paraguay [143]   Peru [101]   Philippines: Used by the Santiago City PNP. [144]   Poland: [21] Replaced by AKM , Tantal and Beryl .   Qatar [101]   Rhodesia [145]   Romania [101]   Russia: [21] Replaced by the AK-74 since 1974.   Rwanda [146]   Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic [147]   Sao Tome and Principe [101]   Senegal [148]   Serbia [101]   Seychelles [101]   Sierra Leone [101]   Slovenia [101]   Somalia [101]   South Africa: Used by the Special Forces Brigade . [149]   Sri Lanka: Type 56 variant. [101]   Sudan [101]   South Sudan [ citation needed ]   Suriname [101]   Syria [101]   Tajikistan [101]   Tanzania [101]   Togo [101]   Turkey [101]   Turkmenistan [101]   Uganda [101]   Ukraine [101]   Dominican Republic [101]   UAE [101]   Uzbekistan [101]   Vietnam: Type 56 variants and Type 58 variants were used extensively by the Viet Cong . [111]   Yemen [101]   Yugoslavia [21]   Zambia [101]   Zimbabwe [101] Illicit trade See also: Crime in Russia § Arms trafficking AK-47 copies confiscated from Somali pirates by Finnish mine-layer Pohjanmaa during Operation Atalanta , photographed in Manege Military Museum. The stocks are missing on the top three AKs

Throughout the world, the AK and its variants are commonly used by governments, revolutionaries, terrorists, criminals, and civilians alike. In some countries, such as Somalia, Rwanda, Mozambique, Congo and Tanzania, the prices for Black Market AKs are between $30 and $125 per weapon and prices have fallen in the last few decades due to mass counterfeiting. [150] In Kenya, "an AK-47 fetches five head of cattle (about 10,000 Kenya shillings or 100 U.S. dollars) when offered for barter, but costs almost half that price when cash is paid". [151] There are places around the world where AK type weapons can be purchased on the Black Market "for as little as $6, or traded for a chicken or a sack of grain". [152] [153] [154]

The AK-47 has also spawned a cottage industry of sorts and has been copied and manufactured (one gun at a time) in small shops around the world (see Khyber Pass Copy ). [155] [156] The estimated numbers of AK-type weapons vary greatly. The Small Arms Survey suggest that "between 70 and 100 million of these weapons have been produced since 1947". [157] The World Bank estimates that out of the 500 million total firearms available worldwide, 100 million are of the Kalashnikov family, and 75 million are AK-47s. [3] Because AK-type weapons have been made in many countries, often illicitly, it is impossible to know how many really exist. [158]

Cultural influence and impact

"Basically, it's the anti-Western cachet of it ... And you know, one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter , so we all sort of think, oh boy, we've got a little bit of Che Guevara in us. And this accounts for the popularity of the (AK 47) weapon. Plus I think that in the United States it's considered counterculture , which is always something that citizens in this country kind of like ... It's kind of sticking a finger in the eye of the man , if you will."

— Larry Kahaner, author of AK-47: The Weapon That Changed the Face of War [159] Flag of Mozambique

During the Cold War , the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China, as well as United States and other NATO nations supplied arms and technical knowledge to numerous countries and rebel forces around the world. During this time the Western countries used relatively expensive automatic rifles, such as the FN FAL , the HK G3 , the M14 , and the M16 . In contrast, the Russians and Chinese used the AK-47; its low production cost and ease of manufacture allow them to make AKs in vast numbers.

In the pro-communist states, the AK-47 became a symbol of third-world revolution. During the 1980s, the Soviet Union became the principal arms dealer to countries embargoed by Western nations, including Middle Eastern nations such as Iran, Libya, and Syria, which welcomed Soviet Union backing against Israel. After the fall of the Soviet Union , AK-47s were sold both openly and on the black market to any group with cash, including drug cartels and dictatorial states, and more recently they have been seen in the hands of Islamic groups such as Al-Qaeda , ISIL , and the Taliban in Afghanistan and Iraq, and FARC , Ejército de Liberación Nacional guerrillas in Colombia. [159]

Kalashnikov Vodka

In Russia, the Kalashnikov is a tremendous source of national pride. [160] "The family of the inventor of the world's most famous assault rifle, Mikhail Kalashnikov, has authorized German engineering company MMI to use the well-known Kalashnikov name on a variety of not-so-deadly goods." [161] In recent years, Kalashnikov Vodka has been marketed with souvenir bottles in the shape of the AK-47 Kalashnikov. [162] [163] There are also Kalashnikov watches, [164] umbrellas, [165] and knives. [166] [167]

The Kalashnikov Museum (also called the AK-47 museum) opened on 4 November 2004 in Izhevsk , Udmurt Republic. This city is in the Ural Region of Russia. The museum chronicles the biography of General Kalashnikov and documents the invention of the AK-47. The museum complex of Kalashnikov's small arms, a series of halls, and multimedia exhibitions are devoted to the evolution of the AK-47 assault rifle and attracts 10,000 monthly visitors. [168] Nadezhda Vechtomova, the museum director, stated in an interview that the purpose of the museum is to honor the ingenuity of the inventor and the hard work of the employees and to "separate the weapon as a weapon of murder from the people who are producing it and to tell its history in our country".

The proliferation of this weapon is reflected by more than just numbers. The AK-47 is included in the flag of Mozambique and its emblem , an acknowledgment that the country gained its independence in large part through the effective use of their AK-47s. [169] It is also found in the coats of arms of East Timor and the revolution era Burkina Faso , as well as in the flags of Hezbollah and the New People's Army .

Some Western countries associate the AK-47 with their enemies; both Cold War era and present-day. For example, Western movies often portray criminals, gang members and terrorists using AK-47s. For these reasons, in the U.S. and Western Europe, the AK-47 is stereotypically regarded as the weapon of choice of insurgents, gangsters and terrorists. Conversely, throughout the developing world , the AK-47 can be positively attributed with revolutionaries against foreign occupation, imperialism , or colonialism . [159]

The AK-47 made an appearance in U.S. popular culture as a recurring focus in the Nicolas Cage film Lord of War (2005). Numerous monologues in the movie focus on the weapon, and its effects on global conflict and the gun running market. [170]

In 2006, the Colombian musician and peace activist César López devised the escopetarra , an AK converted into a guitar. One sold for US$17,000 in a fundraiser held to benefit the victims of anti-personnel mines , while another was exhibited at the United Nations' Conference on Disarmament . [171]

In Mexico, the AK-47 is known as "Cuerno de Chivo" (literally "Goat's Horn") because of its curved magazine design. It is one of the weapons of choice of Mexican drug cartels. It is sometimes mentioned in Mexican folk music lyrics. [172]

See also Assault weapon Comparison of the AK-47 and M16 List of Russian inventions List of Russian weaponry List of assault rifles Table of handgun and rifle cartridges Overview of gun laws by nation Notes ^ Table data covers the AK-47 with Type 3 receiver ^ 2.6 lb milled from 6 lb stock. This was about 2.2 lb heavier than the stamped receiver. References ^ http://www.nybooks.com/articles/2011/02/10/most-influential-weapon-our-time/ The Most Influential Weapon of Our Time. The New York Review of Books. Max Hastings FEBRUARY 10, 2011 ISSUE. "József Tibor Fejes, a young Hungarian identified by C. J. Chivers in The Gun as ‘the first known insurgent to carry an AK-47.’ According to Chivers, ‘Fejes obtained his prize after Soviet soldiers dropped their rifles during their attack on revolutionaries in Budapest in 1956…. The Hungarian Revolution marked the AK-47’s true battlefield debut." ^ Monetchikov 2005 , chpts. 6 and 7: (if AK-46 and AK-47 are to be seen as separate designs). ^ a b c Killicoat, Phillip (April 2007). "Weaponomics: The Global Market for Assault Rifles" (PDF) . World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4202 (Post-Conflict Transitions Working Paper No. 10) . Oxford University . p. 3 . Retrieved 3 April 2010 .   ^ a b "AK-47 Inventor Doesn't Lose Sleep Over Havoc Wrought With His Invention" . USA: Fox News Channel . 6 July 2007. OCLC   36334372 . Retrieved 3 April 2010 .   ^ a b c НСД. 7,62-мм автомат АК 1967 , pp. 161–162. ^ a b НСД. 7,62-мм автомат АКМ (АКМС) 1983 , pp. 149–150. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "AKM (AK-47) Kalashnikov modernized assault rifle, caliber 7.62mm" . Izhmash . Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.   ^ a b Monetchikov 2005 , p. 67; Bolotin 1995 , p. 129. ^ a b Hallock, Richard R. (16 March 1970) M16 Rifle Case Study. Prepared for the Presidents Blue Ribbon Defense Panel . pogoarchives.org ^ a b History of AK-47 Gun – The Gun Book Review . Popular Mechanics (12 October 2010). ^ "Machine Carbine Promoted" . Tactical and Technical Trends , No. 57, April 1945. ^ Rottman 2011 , p. 9. ^ a b The History of Kalashnikov Gun. Pravda. 02.08.2003 . English.pravda.ru. Retrieved 25 November 2015. ^ "Mikhail Kalashnikov: The Father of 100 Million Rifles" . Field & Stream . February 2006.   ^ a b Johnson, Harold E. (September 1973) Small Arms Identifiction and Operations Guide-Eurasain Communist Countries . U.S. Army Foreign Science and Technology Center of the U.S. Army Materiel Command. ^ Walsh, Nick Paton (10 October 2003). "Mikhail Kalashnikov: 'I sleep soundly ' " . The Guardian . Retrieved 12 January 2016 .   ^ Russia celebrates Mikhail Kalashnikov's 90th birthday – the designer who armed the world . 39;Rossiyskaya Gazeta via Telegraph.co.uk (28 October 2009). Retrieved 25 November 2015. ^ a b Bolotin 1995 , pp. 123–124. ^ An interview with Mikhail Kalashnikov, Robert Fisk, The Independent (centrist), London, England. April 22, 2001. http://www.worldpress.org/cover5.htm ^ AK-47 Inventor Doesn't Lose Sleep Over Havoc Wrought With His Invention. An interview with Mikhail Kalashnikov . Associated Press via Fox News Channel (6 July 2007). Retrieved 25 November 2015. ^ a b c d Popenker, Maksim (5 February 2009). "Kalashnikov AK (AK-47) AKS, AKM and AKMS assault rifles (USSR)" . World Guns. Modern Firearms & Ammunition . Retrieved 14 March 2011 .   ^ Kuptsov, Andrei (2001). Странная история оружия: С. Г. Симонов, неизвестный гений России, или кто и как разоружил русского солдата [ Odd History of Weapons: S. G. Simonov, an Unknown Genius of Russia, or How and Who Disarmed the Russian Soldier ] (in Russian). Moscow: Kraft+. p. 262. ISBN   978-5-93675-025-0 .   ^ Bolotin 1995 , p. 123. ^ Monetchikov 2005 , p. 38. ^ Bolotin, David Naumovich [translation: Igor F. Naftul'eff ; edited by John Walter, Heikki Pohjolainen] (1995). Soviet Small-arms and Ammunition . Hyvinkää: Finnish Arms Museum Foundation (Suomen asemuseosäätiö). p. 150. ISBN   9519718419 .   CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter ( link ) ^ a b Shilin, Val; Cutshaw, Charlie. "Mikhail Kalashnikov" . Power Custom. Archived from the original on 2 April 2005 . Retrieved 19 October 2008 .   ^ a b Patrick Sweeney (2010) The Gun Digest Book of The AR-15 , Vol. 3. Gun Digest Books. p. 20. ISBN 1440213763 . ^ Bolotin, David Naumovich [translation: Igor F. Naftul'eff ; edited by John Walter, Heikki Pohjolainen] (1995). Soviet Small-arms and Ammunition . Hyvinkää: Finnish Arms Museum Foundation (Suomen asemuseosäätiö). p. 115. ISBN   9519718419 .   CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter ( link ) ^ Monetchikov 2005 , p. 36. ^ a b Kalashnikov AK (AK-47) AKS, AKM and AKMS assault rifles (USSR) . World.guns.ru. Retrieved 25 November 2015. ^ Popenker, Maxim; Williams, Anthony G (2005). Assault Rifle . Crowood Press. ISBN   978-1-86126-700-9 .   [ page needed ] ^ https://www.forgottenweapons.com/ak-and-stg-kissing-cousins/AK and StG – Kissing Cousins, December 12, 2012, byIan McCollum ^ Monetchikov 2005 , p. 64. ^ a b c Poyer 2006 , pp. 8–11. ^ a b c "Type 2 & Type 3 AK-47" . browningmgs.com.   ^ a b Ezell, Edward (1986). The AK47 story: evolution of the Kalashnikov weapons . Stackpole Books . p. 36. ISBN   978-0-8117-0916-3 .   ^ Poyer 2006 , p. 2. ^ "An AK for Every Market by James Dunnigan April 23, 2003" . strategypage.com. Archived from the original on 25 March 2007 . Retrieved 26 June 2009 .   ^ The Battle Rifle: Development and Use Since World War II , By Russell C. Tilstra, (McFarland 2014) page 25-28 ^ a b c d e f Dockery, Kevin (2007).
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